U. Haarmann and P. Bachmann, Beirut, 1979, pp. They were both influential in the royal court and they showed concern for the welfare of the community. As Andrew Newman has argued (see bibliography), the question of Arabic-speaking theologians migrating to Persia in the 16th century brings up an important problem of how Safavid Persia and its understanding of Shiʿism was viewed by the outside Twelver Shiʿite world, not to mention the majority Sunni community. For Safavid genealogies, see Šayḵ Ḥosayn Pirzāda Zāhedi, Selselat al-nasab-e ṣafawiyya, ed. A number of studies have been offered on architecture and urban dynamics under Shah Ṭahmāsp. However, a series of Safavid victories in the early 1550s: the conquest of the Armenian cities of Arjiš, Aḵlāt,Van, and Bitlis (see BEDLIS), the routing of Eskandar Pasha outside Erzurum, the capture of Sinān Pasha, and the ensuing peace treaty of Amasya (29 May 1555), suggest that Tabriz was relatively secure when Ṭahmāsp decided to relocate his royal capital to Qazvin in 1557. Library of Congress Authority File (English) Virtual International Authority File. Harem fact, which the women led their lives with their children and families, as in some of the Islamic states, existed also in Safavid Palace. , About the same time, envoys were also sent to Iran by King Ferdinand, in the person of Pietro da Negro and Simon de Lillis, without success. This persuaded the sultan to come to terms at the Peace of Amasya in 1555. 301-9. 171-206; H. Horst “Zwei Erlasse Shah Ṭahmāsp I,” ZDMG 110, 1960, pp. J. Calmard, Paris, 1993, pp. In 1533 Selim s son, the Ottoman sultan Süleyman I (the Magnificent), set out on his campaign against the Two Iraqs.  Tahmasp also responded by expressing his friendship to the Emperor. He also captured one of Suleiman's favourites, Sinan Beg. "A Persian Velvet of the ShÄh á¹¬ahmÄsp Period." According to the secretary and historian, Budāq Qazvini, Shah Ṭahmāsp in his youth “was inclined towards calligraphy and art, and brought those singular masters who were without comparison in each of their own art. He came to the throne aged ten in 1524 and came under the control of the Qizilbash, Turkic tribesmen who formed the backbone of the Safavid power. Dissension appeared soon afterward among the Qezelbāš ranks, and the Ostājlu tribe, headed by Köpek Solṭān, chafed at the prospect of Rumlu hegemony at the Safavid court.  These exchanges were effectively followed however by the long Ottoman-Safavid War (1532â1555). Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi, shah of Iran (1941-79). A. Soudavar has examined the cultural implications of Ṭahmāsp’s diplomacy in “The Early Safavids and their Cultural Interactions with Surrounding States,” in Iran and the Surrounding World: Interactions in Culture and Cultural Politics, ed. R. Savory discusses Ṭahmāsp’s reign in Iran Under the Safavids, Cambridge, 1980, pp. Introduction. READ PAPER. Finally, in 1530/1, a quarrel broke out between members of the Takkalu and Shamlu Qizilbash factions and the Shamlus succeeded in killing Chuha Sultan. Perhaps more telling is Ṭahmāsp’s own claims that he regularly foresaw future events while dreaming and was visited in his dreams on a number of occasions by Sufi saints, most notably his ancestors, Shaikh Ṣafi-al-Din and Solṭān Ḥaydar. For facsimiles, transcriptions, and translations of documents, see L. Fekete’s monumental Einführung in die persische Paläographie, Budapest, 1977, pp.  However, in the 1540s he is recorded as losing interest in the arts, and his imperial atelier largely dispersed. Div Solṭān proved to be both cunning and patient in his plan to subjugate the Ostājlu and Takkalu groups, and used this period of cooperation to placate tribal sensitivities and isolate Köpek Solṭān Ostājlu. Nonetheless, Ṭahmāsp’s “spiritual repentance” is presented in conventional historiography as a metaphor for Safavid Persia’s transition to Twelver Shiʿite orthodoxy from what Michel Mazzaoui termed “Folk Islam,” or more specifically an ad hoc fusion of rituals and liturgies influenced by a variety of traditions: mainstream Sunnism, Imami Shiʿism, Neẓāri Ismaʿilism, Neoplatonic theosophy, militant ḥorufi millenarianism (see HORUFISM), and Turkmen shamanism. However, the Ottomans continued to apply pressure by invading Persia again in 1548, once again a direct result of fraternal fractures within the Safavid household. As Biancamaria Scarcia Amoretti (p. 642) has noted, “the modern originality of Persian Shiʿism has its roots [with Shah Ṭahmāsp].” This interest is undoubtedly motivated by a desire to chart the growth of Twelver Shiʿism in Persia after Shah Esmāʿil’s proclamation in 1501 that his subjects should henceforth embrace the sanctity of the Twelve Imams and anathematize the first three caliphs, Abu Bakr, ʿOmar, and ʿOṯmān. Too young to rule in his own right, Tahmasp came under the control of tâ¦ 267-86. Ê¿AbbÄs I (reigned 1588â1629) established trade contacts directly with Europe, but Iranâs remoteness from Europe, behind the imposing Ottoman screen, made maintaining and One particularly understudied poet is Ḵᵛāja ʿAbdi Beg of Shiraz (laqab: Navidi), perhaps better known for his historical work, the Takmilat al-aḵbār, but whose poetical collection, Jannat-e ʿAdan (made up of five major poems, in the spirit of Neẓāmi’s Ḵamsa) deserves more scholarly attention for its allusions to and descriptions of historical events and monuments. Khan Parwar Khanum, a sister of Zali Beg Gorji, a Georgian; Huri Khan Khanum, daughter of the Governor of. Shorter, less prosaic accounts can be found in: Ḥasan Beg Rumlu, Aḥsan al-tawāriḵ, ed. , Meanwhile, King Francis I of France, enemy of the Habsburgs, and Suleiman the Magnificent were moving forward with a Franco-Ottoman alliance, formalized in 1536, that would counterbalance the Habsburg threat. Perhaps the greatest of the ghazal writers was Jamāl-al-Din Moḥammad b. Badr-al-Din of Shiraz (d. 1590-91) who wrote under the nom de plume of ʿOrfi.  One of his most notable successors, the greatest Safavid emperor, Abbas I (also known as Abbas the Great) would fully implement and finalize this policy and the creation of this new layer in Iranian society. In 1528 Chuha Sultan and the shah marched with their army to reassert control of the region. On 5 July 1527 as Div Sultan arrived for a meeting of the government, Tahmasp shot an arrow at him. Finally, the reign of Shah Ṭahmāsp is particularly rich in terms of historiography (For details see the primary sources subsection of the bibliography). á¹¬ahmÄsp I (r. 1524-76). In September of that year, Tahmasp and Bayezid were enjoying a banquet at Tabriz when Tahmasp suddenly pretended he had received news that the Ottoman prince was engaged in a plot against his life. 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